Zero-Touch Provisioning for Juniper

Vincent Bernat

Juniper’s official documentation on ZTP explains how to configure the ISC DHCP Server to automatically upgrade and configure on first boot a Juniper device. However, the proposed configuration could be a bit more elegant. This note explains how.

TL;DR

Do not redefine option 43. Instead, specify the vendor option space to use to encode parameters with vendor-option-space.


When booting for the first time, a Juniper device requests its IP address through a DHCP discover message, then request additional parameters for autoconfiguration through a DHCP request message:

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (Request)
    Message type: Boot Request (1)
    Hardware type: Ethernet (0x01)
    Hardware address length: 6
    Hops: 0
    Transaction ID: 0x44e3a7c9
    Seconds elapsed: 0
    Bootp flags: 0x8000, Broadcast flag (Broadcast)
    Client IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Your (client) IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Next server IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Relay agent IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Client MAC address: 02:00:00:00:00:01 (02:00:00:00:00:01)
    Client hardware address padding: 00000000000000000000
    Server host name not given
    Boot file name not given
    Magic cookie: DHCP
    Option: (54) DHCP Server Identifier (10.0.2.2)
    Option: (55) Parameter Request List
        Length: 14
        Parameter Request List Item: (3) Router
        Parameter Request List Item: (51) IP Address Lease Time
        Parameter Request List Item: (1) Subnet Mask
        Parameter Request List Item: (15) Domain Name
        Parameter Request List Item: (6) Domain Name Server
        Parameter Request List Item: (66) TFTP Server Name
        Parameter Request List Item: (67) Bootfile name
        Parameter Request List Item: (120) SIP Servers
        Parameter Request List Item: (44) NetBIOS over TCP/IP Name Server
        Parameter Request List Item: (43) Vendor-Specific Information
        Parameter Request List Item: (150) TFTP Server Address
        Parameter Request List Item: (12) Host Name
        Parameter Request List Item: (7) Log Server
        Parameter Request List Item: (42) Network Time Protocol Servers
    Option: (50) Requested IP Address (10.0.2.15)
    Option: (53) DHCP Message Type (Request)
    Option: (60) Vendor class identifier
        Length: 15
        Vendor class identifier: Juniper-mx10003
    Option: (51) IP Address Lease Time
    Option: (12) Host Name
    Option: (255) End
    Padding: 00

It requests several options, including the TFTP server address option 150, and the Vendor-Specific Information Option 43—or VSIO. The DHCP server can use option 60 to identify the vendor-specific information to send. For Juniper devices, option 43 encodes the image name and the configuration file name. They are fetched from the IP address provided in option 150.

The official documentation on ZTP provides a valid configuration to answer such a request. However, it does not leverage the ability of the ISC DHCP Server to support several vendors and redefines option 43 to be Juniper-specific:

option NEW_OP-encapsulation code 43 = encapsulate NEW_OP;

Instead, it is possible to define an option space for Juniper, using a self-descriptive name, without overriding option 43:

# Juniper vendor option space
option space juniper;
option juniper.image-file-name     code 0 = text;
option juniper.config-file-name    code 1 = text;
option juniper.image-file-type     code 2 = text;
option juniper.transfer-mode       code 3 = text;
option juniper.alt-image-file-name code 4 = text;
option juniper.http-port           code 5 = text;

Then, when you need to set these suboptions, specify the vendor option space:

class "juniper-mx10003" {
  match if (option vendor-class-identifier = "Juniper-mx10003") {
  vendor-option-space juniper;
  option juniper.transfer-mode    "http";
  option juniper.image-file-name  "/images/junos-vmhost-install-mx-x86-64-19.3R2-S4.5.tgz";
  option juniper.config-file-name "/cfg/juniper-mx10003.txt";
}

This configuration returns the following answer:1

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (ACK)
    Message type: Boot Reply (2)
    Hardware type: Ethernet (0x01)
    Hardware address length: 6
    Hops: 0
    Transaction ID: 0x44e3a7c9
    Seconds elapsed: 0
    Bootp flags: 0x8000, Broadcast flag (Broadcast)
    Client IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Your (client) IP address: 10.0.2.15
    Next server IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Relay agent IP address: 0.0.0.0
    Client MAC address: 02:00:00:00:00:01 (02:00:00:00:00:01)
    Client hardware address padding: 00000000000000000000
    Server host name not given
    Boot file name not given
    Magic cookie: DHCP
    Option: (53) DHCP Message Type (ACK)
    Option: (54) DHCP Server Identifier (10.0.2.2)
    Option: (51) IP Address Lease Time
    Option: (1) Subnet Mask (255.255.255.0)
    Option: (3) Router
    Option: (6) Domain Name Server
    Option: (43) Vendor-Specific Information
        Length: 89
        Value: 00362f696d616765732f6a756e6f732d766d686f73742d69…
    Option: (150) TFTP Server Address
    Option: (255) End

Using vendor-option-space directive allows you to make different ZTP implementations coexist. For example, you can add the option space for PXE:

option space PXE;
option PXE.mtftp-ip    code 1 = ip-address;
option PXE.mtftp-cport code 2 = unsigned integer 16;
option PXE.mtftp-sport code 3 = unsigned integer 16;
option PXE.mtftp-tmout code 4 = unsigned integer 8;
option PXE.mtftp-delay code 5 = unsigned integer 8;
option PXE.discovery-control    code 6  = unsigned integer 8;
option PXE.discovery-mcast-addr code 7  = ip-address;
option PXE.boot-server code 8  = { unsigned integer 16, unsigned integer 8, ip-address };
option PXE.boot-menu   code 9  = { unsigned integer 16, unsigned integer 8, text };
option PXE.menu-prompt code 10 = { unsigned integer 8, text };
option PXE.boot-item   code 71 = unsigned integer 32;

class "pxeclients" {
  match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
  vendor-option-space PXE;
  option PXE.mtftp-ip 10.0.2.2;
  # […]
}

On the same topic, do not override option 125 “VIVSO.” See “Zero-Touch Provisioning for Cisco IOS.”


  1. Wireshark knows how to decode option 43 for some vendors, thanks to option 60, but not for Juniper. ↩︎

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