Syncing RIPE, ARIN, and APNIC objects with a custom Ansible module

Vincent Bernat

Internet is split into five regional Internet registry: AFRINIC, ARIN, APNIC, LACNIC, and RIPE. Each RIR maintains an Internet Routing Registry. An IRR allows one to publish information about the routing of Internet number resources.1 Operators use this to determine the owner of an IP address and to construct and maintain routing filters. To ensure your routes are widely accepted, it is important to keep the prefixes you announce up-to-date in an IRR.

There are two common tools to query this database: whois and bgpq4. The first one allows you to do a query with the WHOIS protocol:

$ whois -BrG 2a0a:e805:400::/40
[…]
inet6num:       2a0a:e805:400::/40
netname:        FR-BLADE-CUSTOMERS-DE
country:        DE
geoloc:         50.1109 8.6821
admin-c:        BN2763-RIPE
tech-c:         BN2763-RIPE
status:         ASSIGNED
mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt
remarks:        synced with cmdb
created:        2020-05-19T08:04:58Z
last-modified:  2020-05-19T08:04:58Z
source:         RIPE

route6:         2a0a:e805:400::/40
descr:          Blade IPv6 - AMS1
origin:         AS64476
mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt
remarks:        synced with cmdb
created:        2019-10-01T08:19:34Z
last-modified:  2020-05-19T08:05:00Z
source:         RIPE

The second one allows you to build route filters using the information contained in the IRR database:

$ bgpq4 -6 -S RIPE -b AS64476
NN = [
    2a0a:e805::/40,
    2a0a:e805:100::/40,
    2a0a:e805:300::/40,
    2a0a:e805:400::/40,
    2a0a:e805:500::/40
];

There is no module available on Ansible Galaxy to manage these objects. Each IRR has different ways of being updated. Some RIRs propose an API but some don’t. If we restrict ourselves to RIPE, ARIN, and APNIC, the only common method to update objects is email updates, authenticated with a password or a PGP signature.2 Let’s write a custom Ansible module for this purpose!

Notice

I recommend that you read “Writing a custom Ansible module” as an introduction, as well as “Syncing MySQL tables” for a more instructive example.

Code#

The module takes a list of RPSL objects to synchronize and returns the body of an email update if a change is needed:

- name: prepare RIPE objects
  irr_sync:
    irr: RIPE
    mntner: fr-blade-1-mnt
    source: whois-ripe.txt
  register: irr

Prerequisites#

The source file should be a set of objects to sync using the RPSL language. This would be the same content you would send manually by email. All objects should be managed by the same maintainer, which is also provided as a parameter.

Signing3 and sending the result is not the responsibility of this module. You need two additional tasks for this purpose:

- name: sign RIPE objects
  shell:
    cmd: gpg --batch --user noc@example.com --clearsign
    stdin: "{{ irr.objects }}"
  register: signed
  check_mode: false
  changed_when: false

- name: update RIPE objects by email
  mail:
    subject: "NEW: update for RIPE"
    from: noc@example.com
    to: "auto-dbm@ripe.net"
    cc: noc@example.com
    host: smtp.example.com
    port: 25
    charset: us-ascii
    body: "{{ signed.stdout }}"

You also need to authorize the PGP keys used to sign the updates by creating a key-cert object and adding it as a valid authentication method for the corresponding mntner object:

key-cert:  PGPKEY-A791AAAB
certif:    -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
certif:    
certif:    mQGNBF8TLY8BDADEwP3a6/vRhEERBIaPUAFnr23zKCNt5YhWRZyt50mKq1RmQBBY
[]
certif:    -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
mnt-by:    fr-blade-1-mnt
source:    RIPE

mntner:    fr-blade-1-mnt
[]
auth:      PGPKEY-A791AAAB
mnt-by:    fr-blade-1-mnt
source:    RIPE

Module definition#

Starting from the skeleton described in the previous article, we define the module:

module_args = dict(
    irr=dict(type='str', required=True),
    mntner=dict(type='str', required=True),
    source=dict(type='path', required=True),
)

result = dict(
    changed=False,
)

module = AnsibleModule(
    argument_spec=module_args,
    supports_check_mode=True
)

Getting existing objects#

To grab existing objects, we use the whois command to retrieve all the objects from the provided maintainer.

# Per-IRR variations:
# - whois server
whois = {
    'ARIN': 'rr.arin.net',
    'RIPE': 'whois.ripe.net',
    'APNIC': 'whois.apnic.net'
}
# - whois options
options = {
    'ARIN': ['-r'],
    'RIPE': ['-BrG'],
    'APNIC': ['-BrG']
}
# - objects excluded from synchronization
excluded = ["domain"]
if irr == "ARIN":
    # ARIN does not return these objects
    excluded.extend([
        "key-cert",
        "mntner",
    ])

# Grab existing objects
args = ["-h", whois[irr],
        "-s", irr,
        *options[irr],
        "-i", "mnt-by",
        module.params['mntner']]
proc = subprocess.run("whois", *args, capture_output=True)
if proc.returncode != 0:
    raise AnsibleError(
        f"unable to query whois: {args}")
output = proc.stdout.decode('ascii')
got = extract(output, excluded)

The first part of the code setup some IRR-specific constants: the server to query, the options to provide to the whois command and the objects to exclude from synchronization. The second part invokes the whois command, requesting all objects whose mnt-by field is the provided maintainer. Here is an example of output:

$ whois -h whois.ripe.net -s RIPE -BrG -i mnt-by fr-blade-1-mnt
[…]

inet6num:       2a0a:e805:300::/40
netname:        FR-BLADE-CUSTOMERS-FR
country:        FR
geoloc:         48.8566 2.3522
admin-c:        BN2763-RIPE
tech-c:         BN2763-RIPE
status:         ASSIGNED
mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt
remarks:        synced with cmdb
created:        2020-05-19T08:04:59Z
last-modified:  2020-05-19T08:04:59Z
source:         RIPE

[…]

route6:         2a0a:e805:300::/40
descr:          Blade IPv6 - PA1
origin:         AS64476
mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt
remarks:        synced with cmdb
created:        2019-10-01T08:19:34Z
last-modified:  2020-05-19T08:05:00Z
source:         RIPE

[…]

The result is passed to the extract() function. It parses and normalizes the results into a dictionary mapping object names to objects. We store the result in the got variable.

def extract(raw, excluded):
    """Extract objects."""
    # First step, remove comments and unwanted lines
    objects = "\n".join([obj
                         for obj in raw.split("\n")
                         if not obj.startswith((
                                 "#",
                                 "%",
                         ))])
    # Second step, split objects
    objects = [RPSLObject(obj.strip())
               for obj in re.split(r"\n\n+", objects)
               if obj.strip()
               and not obj.startswith(
                   tuple(f"{x}:" for x in excluded))]
    # Last step, put objects in a dict
    objects = {repr(obj): obj
               for obj in objects}
    return objects

RPSLObject() is a class enabling normalization and comparison of objects. Look at the module code for more details.

>>> output="""
... inet6num:       2a0a:e805:300::/40
... […]
... """
>>> pprint({k: str(v) for k,v in extract(output, excluded=[])})
{'<Object:inet6num:2a0a:e805:300::/40>':
   'inet6num:       2a0a:e805:300::/40\n'
   'netname:        FR-BLADE-CUSTOMERS-FR\n'
   'country:        FR\n'
   'geoloc:         48.8566 2.3522\n'
   'admin-c:        BN2763-RIPE\n'
   'tech-c:         BN2763-RIPE\n'
   'status:         ASSIGNED\n'
   'mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt\n'
   'remarks:        synced with cmdb\n'
   'source:         RIPE',
 '<Object:route6:2a0a:e805:300::/40>':
   'route6:         2a0a:e805:300::/40\n'
   'descr:          Blade IPv6 - PA1\n'
   'origin:         AS64476\n'
   'mnt-by:         fr-blade-1-mnt\n'
   'remarks:        synced with cmdb\n'
   'source:         RIPE'}

Comparing with wanted objects#

Let’s build the wanted dictionary using the same structure, thanks to the extract() function we can use verbatim:

with open(module.params['source']) as f:
    source = f.read()
wanted = extract(source, excluded)

The next step is to compare got and wanted to build the diff object:

if got != wanted:
    result['changed'] = True
    if module._diff:
        result['diff'] = [
            dict(before_header=k,
                 after_header=k,
                 before=str(got.get(k, "")),
                 after=str(wanted.get(k, "")))
            for k in set((*wanted.keys(), *got.keys()))
            if k not in wanted or k not in got or wanted[k] != got[k]]

Returning updates#

The module does not have a side effect. If there is a difference, we return the updates to send by email. We choose to include all wanted objects in the updates (contained in the source variable) and let the IRR ignore unmodified objects. We also append the objects to be deleted by adding a delete: attribute to each of them.

# We send all source objects and deleted objects.
deleted_mark = f"{'delete:':16}deleted by CMDB"
deleted = "\n\n".join([f"{got[k].raw}\n{deleted_mark}"
                       for k in got
                       if k not in wanted])
result['objects'] = f"{source}\n\n{deleted}"

module.exit_json(**result)

The complete code is available on GitHub. The module supports both --diff and --check flags. It does not return anything if no change is detected. It can work with APNIC, RIPE, and ARIN. It is not perfect: it may not detect some changes,4 it is not able to modify objects not owned by the provided maintainer5 and some attributes cannot be modified, requiring to manually delete and recreate the updated object.6 However, this module should automate 95% of your needs.


  1. Other IRRs exist without being attached to an RIR. The most notable one is RADb↩︎

  2. ARIN is phasing out this method in favor of IRR-online. Moreover, PGP signatures were never supported outside the test environment. RIPE has an API available, but email updates are still supported and not planned to be deprecated. APNIC plans to expose an API↩︎

  3. PGP is not supported by ARIN outside the test environment. You need to use the password method instead… 😕 ↩︎

  4. For ARIN, we cannot query key-cert and mntner objects and therefore we cannot detect changes in them. It is also not possible to detect changes to the auth mechanisms of a mntner object. ↩︎

  5. APNIC does not assign top-level objects to the maintainer associated with the owner. ↩︎

  6. Changing the status of an inetnum object requires deleting and recreating the object. ↩︎

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